Abandoned Space Hardware: CANCELLED Part 2


Hi it’s me, Tim Dodd,
the Everyday Astronaut. There’s nothing more exciting
than a new rocket concept, a new mission to unknown
worlds, or an exciting breakthrough in technology. But unfortunately for every proposal there’s almost an equal
amount of cancellations with only a small handful making it beyond the drawing board. What’s even more frustrating
is when these concepts actually leave paper. They have thousands of
engineering hours put in, hardware even gets built,
billions of dollars invested and then it
gets put on the shelf. If this sounds familiar to you, welcome to part two of my new canceled series. We’re gonna take a look
at some space programs and concepts that were
so close to complete. They sometimes were even
launched before it got canceled. Oh man, these videos
are pretty frustrating. So with that in mind, let’s get started. [Crowd] Three, two, one. (upbeat soft music) [Announcer] Liftoff, we have a liftoff. (crowd cheering) Welcome to part two of
canceled, where again, we’re focusing on hardware
that actually flew before it fizzled, it was
built and then bye bye, completed then canned. You get the idea. There’s gonna be a lot
more videos coming up in this series, so stay tuned. Remember the so called space race between the United States and the Soviet Union? Despite the US literally
moving the goal post by setting landing on
the moon as the end goal, the Soviet Union was clearly
beating the United States in almost every other space milestone. So with the moon now the new
target for both countries, the most ambitious and specialized spacecraft had to be designed. So not only did each country build massive, massive
rockets with enough capability to actually get a
spacecraft out to the moon, but they also had to build vehicles which could land on the moon and come home. Of course the United
States built the iconic Apollo Lunar Module which rode on top of the Saturn V rocket. But did you know, the Soviet
Union designed and built the LK or Lunar Craft to ride
on top of their N-1 rocket? That’s right. While the world watched
as the United States tested and flew their Apollo spacecraft, the Soviet Union was secretly working on a very small lunar lander themselves. The LK was tiny. Only
about one third the size of the Apollo Lunar Module and could only carry one cosmonaut as opposed to two like the Apollo Lander could. Can you imagine? Just a single person
walking around on the moon? All alone, completely isolated. That sounds absolutely terrifying. A few fun facts about the LK. First off, there was no tunnel between the LK and the Soyuz 7K-L3 LK spacecraft, so the cosmonaut was going to have to do a space walk to get inside the LK. The soviets also had a much different approach to actually landing on the moon. They would first send
send an uncrewed Lunokhod probe to select a suitable landing era. It would then act as a beacon to ensure a precise landing for the LK. Another interesting
fact is they would have actually sent two LKs to
the moon for each mission. One ahead of time, uncrewed as a backup if there were any issues
with the crewed lander. And this wasn’t the only backup to ensure their cosmonauts got off the moon, no, the soviets were all about
redundancy with the LK. The LK actually had
primary and backup engines to ensure they could get
their cosmonaut off the moon. Now by contrast, the Apollo Lunar lander only had only one engine
to get off the moon. The crazy thing is this engine could only be started once ever,
so the actual engines used in the missions couldn’t even be tested before they fired. And that to me is just crazy. So the one and only time these engines fired was to get astronauts off the moon. If it didn’t work, they were stuck. And lastly, the LK only
used a single stage to land on and ascend from the moon. But It did ditch the
landing gear and other structure to decrease weight for ascent. But this again is in
quite big contrast to the Apollo lander which had a
separate descent and ascent stage. All said and done, the
Soviets had done their homework and had a pretty great little spacecraft to safely land on the moon. But here’s the craziest
thing, they actually flew 4 of them into space
between 1970 and 1971, although they never took one to the moon. This is mostly because their moon rocket, the N-1, had 4 launch attempts, all ending in massive explosions. With no suitable ride
to space, the LK never made it beyond Low Earth Orbit. With the United States
successfully putting humans on the moon, the motivations and funding pretty quickly dried up. And that’s not to mention they lost one of their N1 launch pads as
well as their lead engineer Sergei Korolev during the
development of the program, so they pulled the plug on
the entire program in 1974. What a shame. I really love this unique
approach to landing on the moon. But again, can you imagine being the only person standing on the
moon completely alone? It gives me shivers
just thinking about it. That would have been intense. Today you can see one
of the five remaining LK’s at the Moscow Aviaition Institute, the Orevo Research and
Educational Facility, the RKK Energia Plant at
Korolev, Tambov Air Base, or the Military Space
Academy in St. Petersberg. We’ll talk more about the N-1 rocket in an upcoming video about
alternate space history since the N-1 never quite
made it out of development. I mean sure it flew,
just not successfully. (light pop music) The Delta rocket. Maybe you’re familiar
with the recently retired and beautiful teel rocket, the Delta II, or perhaps the orangest
rocket currently flying, the Delta IV and Delta IV Heavy. Or maybe you’re a
history buff and remember the Thor-Delta or Delta I variants. Lots of Deltas, but what
about the Delta III? Why do we hear so much about II and IV? Where’s Delta III? Well, there actually was a
Delta III and ironically enough, it’s almost exactly between
a Delta II and a Delta IV. A very strange looking
vehicle if you ask me. Developed in the mid 90’s
by McDonnell Douglas, and later launched by
Boeing after a merger of the two companies, the Delta III was basically a scaled up Delta II. It used that same RS-27A main engine and two vernier engines for roll control, but here’s the weird thing. It shared the same 2.4 meter
diameter core as the Delta II, but it only had the
liquid oxygen in there, and then it tapered up to
four meters for the RP-1 tank. The RS-27A main engine was too weak to actually lift this bigger rocket, so the Delta III would
always require nine large GEM LDXL Solid Rocket Boosters
just to get it off the pad. The Delta III used a new upperstage called the Delta Cryogenic
Second Stage which used liquid Hydrogen and Oxygen
to power an RL-10B-2 engine. This engine was pretty special because it offered a unique extending
nozzle which offered increased efficiency while
maintaining a compact design. This upperstage offered
much better performance when compared to the Delta-K upperstage of the Delta II which used
hypergolic propellants. All said and done, the
Delta III was capable of taking double the
payload to Geostationary Transfer Orbit compared to the Delta II. That’s impressive. The Delta III first launched
on August 26th, 1999 from Cape Canaveral Air
Force Station in Florida. A software error caused by
using the Delta II guidance systems without enough
validations caused a complete failure of the rocket
when the vehicle ran out of hydraulic fluid used
to steer the vehicle. It was destroyed in flight. The next flight in May 1999
failed when the upperstage engine cracked open
during its second burn. This is unusual for the RL-10 which is typically a very reliable engine. It was just bad luck for the
Boeing and the Delta III. The final flight took
place on August 23, 2000. It went okay, but
unfortunately underperformed, leaving the dummy payload in
a lower than targeted orbit. So despite being within
the allowable margin of error for success,
it was already too late. With the Delta IV coming
online and the poor performance of the first three launches, Delta III was scrapped
to focus on the Delta IV. Although it wouldn’t get a
chance to be well remembered or loved, it did perform
the important work of verifying what would become
the Delta IV’s upperstage. So at least it did something successfully in its short lifespan. Today if you’re ever driving
around in California, you may actually see one
of the last remaining bits of a Delta III if you’re driving on Interstate 5 in Santa Ana, California. There’s the upperstage
just hanging out outside of the Discovery Science Center, complete with the extending
nozzle RL-10b-2 even. (light pop music) Have you ever noticed that
Russia loves spacecrafts that sort of look like a shiny ball? At least their Soyuz and
Vostok that we’re most familiar with are strangely super round. In my opinion, the Soyuz
descent module looks like more like a delicious
gumdrop than a spacecraft. These are pretty different
from the truncated cone shapes, like what tends been more standard in the western hemisphere. Such as Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Dragon, Starliner, Orion, et cetera, et cetera. But did you know the Soviet Union actually made their own capsule that
looks nothing like the Soyuz. I mean so much so, it
maybe could’ve slipped through the doors of NASA unnoticed? Welcome the VA spacecraft. If the Apollo Soyuz test
project made a baby, the Apollo capsule’s genes
clearly won out here with the VA. But that’s not all, they
made the VA and there was a Large Functional Cargo
Block called the FGB module. And together they formed
the TKS spacecraft. This thing was quite big. At 13.2 meters long and 4.15 meters wide, the TKS was even larger
than the Apollo Command and Service Module and
offered a crazy 7.5 times the internal volume. The TKS was almost a mini space station. But it was actually
designed to deliver crew and cargo to the Almaz space station, a secret military space station. Despite the entire TKS
spacecraft being much larger than the Apollo Command
and Service module, the VA spacecraft itself
that housed up to three cosmonauts was about 30% smaller than the Apollo Command Module. Most of the volume of
the entire TKS spacecraft came from the Functional Cargo Block which had about 37 cubic meters of volume. Compare that to SpaceX’s Dragon Capsule which has 10 cubic meters
of pressurized volume and about 14 cubic meters
of unpressurized volume, for a total 24 cubic meters of volume. So yeah, this thing was huge. Oddly, the first 8 VA spacecraft flew, on just four flights. Yeah that’s pretty strange. They would fly them in
pairs to test them in varying reentry conditions
flying from 1976 through 1979. Then they even flew four
missions with the FGB module and VA capsule making it
the complete TKS spacecraft. Despite all four missions
going perfectly smooth, no humans ever flew on one. It’s really quite a shame. It would’ve been a really cool spacecraft to see in operation. But at least the TKS design went on to become the basic structure
for many space-station parts including Mir
Modules and ISS modules. The last TKS deorbited
on February 7th, 1991 and was probably one of
the most well developed and successful spacecraft that never get to fulfill its true destiny. If you want to see a VA
capsule, you’re in luck, these things are littered everywhere, including the Memorial Museum
of Cosmonautics in Moscow, The Smithsonian Air and Space
Museum in Washington DC, the International Space University in Strasbourg and a few other places. (light pop music) I’m guessing we’re all
probably pretty familiar with SpaceX’s Falcon 9 and
Falcon Heavy rockets by now. You know, those rockets
that land themselves. Yeah, those ones. Well did you know the
Falcon 9 had a baby brother, or actually I should probably
say an older brother. The Falcon 1. The Falcon 1 was the first rocket SpaceX built starting in 2006. It was a two stage rocket
with a Merlin 1A or 1C engine on the first
stage and a little engine known as the Kestrel
engine for the upperstage. The Falcon 1 came to
be when SpaceX founder Elon Musk got frustrated trying to buy a rocket from Russia to
launch a small payload to Mars. He was unsuccessful in doing so. So Elon gathered up a small
team of rocket engineers and with his own money and some additional private funds, Elon set off to prove he could build his own rocket, and do it even cheaper than he
could’ve bought from Russia. He and his team set their sights on making the cheapest
launcher on the market. So in December 2005 SpaceX rolled their First Falcon 1 out to their launch pad at Kwajalein Atoll on a U.S. military base on Omelek Island in the Pacific Ocean. It wasn’t until March 2006 that
the first Falcon 1 took off. The first three flights of the Falcon 1 were failures, with some getting frustratingly close to orbit. As a matter of fact, Falcon 1 flight three would’ve probably gone off perfectly if it weren’t for a little
residual thrust in the first stage causing the stages to collide immediately after separation. That’s because the Falcon
1 used the Merlin 1A for the first two flights, but the third flight they
upgraded to the Merlin 1C. Of course they tested the Merlin 1C, but their instrumentation didn’t notice a little extra residual thrust after engine shut off that was really only noticeable in the vacuum of space. So unfortunately the first stage continued to accelerate just a little bit after stage separation,
making it run right into the second stage, which unfortunately caused the rocket to fail. SpaceX was done for. They had virtually zero
cash to build another Falcon 1 rocket, but with confidence that the vehicle required no hardware changes, just a small tweak to the software. So Elon was able to get a
few last minute investments, just enough to scrounge up
one more Falcon 1 flight. With the entire future of SpaceX riding on those tiny metal shoulders
of the fourth Falcon 1, breaths were held when it
launched on September 28th, 2008. But fortunately for SpaceX
and of course us SpaceX fans, the Falcon 1 had a flawless mission, putting the RatSat mass
simulator into orbit. This made SpaceX the first privately funded company to reach orbit. The success of flight four allowed SpaceX to launch a customer’s
payload for flight five. So on July 14, 2009, the Falcon 1 took off for the fifth and final time, putting the RazakSat
into orbit for Malaysia. There were seven additional Falcon 1 flights on the books including upgrades to the Falcon 1, which would
have made it the Falcon 1E, a more powerful and stretched version. With SpaceX winning a bid from NASA for a medium class launcher to supply the International Space Station, they decided to cancel
the Falcon 1 program entirely and move full steam ahead into their Falcon 9 program. This left seven missions for the Falcon 1 to be pushed back and
eventually flown on Falcon 9s, or canceled all together. This kind of reminds me
of the Black Arrow program from the United Kingdom that we talked about in that first video. It’s kind of funny how
the Falcon 1 was canceled as soon as it became operational. Only one customer’s payload was ever launched and then closed up shop. It seems like it ended
up being a wise move for SpaceX to use the
success of their Falcon 1 to get on over to that Falcon
9 as quickly as possible. SpaceX was probably a bit too far ahead of the small sat curve with the Falcon 1. Had they developed it today
with the massive increase in smallsat market, it would
probably be more relevant. This is that same rapidly growing market that Rocket Lab is now
successfully fulfilling with their electron rocket. There was one more Falcon
1 built but never flown and is now being displayed in a hallway in SpaceX’s Headquarters in Hawthorne. (light pop music) Now this last one is a
little different because this rocket sure flew,
very, very successfully. As a matter of fact, it’s
probably the most famous rocket of all time, and fulfilled
pretty impressive missions. I’m of course talking
about the Saturn V rocket that took us to the moon. So wait, why is it in this video? Well, like I said, this one
is just a little different, but it’s still a really interesting story. The Saturn V is famous
for flying 13 times, 12 of them being a complete success, with nine missions taking
humans out to the moon, six of which actually landed on the moon. But did you know, there were actually supposed to be three more
Apollo missions to the moon, and we had already built the
Saturn Vs for those missions? Now we’re not going to get into why these Apollo missions were
cancelled in today’s video. That’s again for another video about alternate space history. But we’ll just say due to
budget cuts and changes in direction, Apollo 18,
19 and 20 were canceled. Although three Saturn Vs
were built for the moon, one of these three got put to use by putting Skylab into space. But that leaves two other Saturn Vs that are legitimate, flight
hardware in existence today. If you ever get the chance
to visit Kennedy Space Center in Florida or Johnson
Space Center in Houston, you’ll see bonafide
Saturn Vs that are mostly real flight hardware,
built to go to the moon. And there’s also two full
scale Saturn Vs in Huntsville, Alabama, one vertical and one horizontal. And although neither one is
full-blown flight hardware, they’re still really, really cool. But fun fact, the horizontal
one is the only Saturn V on display that completed a mission. It was the dynamic test
vehicle which was shaken to verify the engineering of the Saturn V. All other Saturn Vs that
completed their missions are resting on the bottom of the ocean. So although the Dynamic
Test Vehicle wasn’t destined for the moon, it’s still an
incredible display piece. But there’s also the last manufactured S1C first stage of a Saturn
V sitting outside of Stennis Space Center at the Infinity Science Center in Mississippi. I wanted to end on this one because I think it’s bittersweet. Here are some of the most
brilliantly complicated, powerful, and massive
feats of engineering ever, with more capability than has
ever flown before or since, just sitting there, shackled
to the Earth by the gravity they know they’re capable
of breaking free from. But I also think it’s kind of beautiful. Sure, I really wish these
things could have flown, put six more humans on
the surface of the moon on the longest, most science packed missions we would’ve ever had. But at the same time, look at this. Now anyone can go see one for themselves. You can walk underneath or alongside it, for a minute or two and
admire all the incredible hardware developed for these missions. So next time you’re
planning an upcoming trip, definitely consider stopping
by Houston, Huntsville, Stennis Space Center,
or Kennedy Space Center and admire the gorgeous Saturn V. I still get speechless
every single time I see one. This all just makes you
realize how important it is to have a clear
goal, a healthy budget and strong leadership to
really make big things happen. It makes me super thankful for
what has been accomplished, but also pretty frustrated
at what could have been. If you enjoyed this video,
don’t forget to check out part one if you
haven’t done so already, but also stick around
because we have a lot more coming in this canceled series. Let me know what other questions you have about canceled programs, rockets or just space flight in
general in the comments below. I owe a huge thanks to
my Patreon supporters for helping make all this stuff possible. If you want to help script or research or gain access to excluse
live streams where you can ask me questions
about rockets and stuff, head on over to
patreon.com/everydayastronaut. Thank you. And while you’re online,
head on over to my brand new web store where I
have things like these. Grid thin not-a-coasters. Notice they’re not coasters
because they have holes in them. That means the liquid can
just drip right through them. But I do promise they’ll keep your drink exactly this high off of water surface they’re on so they’re
therefore drink elevators. And while you’re there, check out brand new shirts and hats,
prints of rocket launches, patches and stickers,
and original artwork. Lots of fun stuff on my new shop at everydayastronaut.com/shop. And thanks to you guys I finally got some of my music available
anywhere you listen to music. You can find Maximum
Aerodynamic Pressure anywhere. Apple Music, Google Play Music, Spotify, Amazon Music, or even a
playlist right here on Youtube. Just search Maximum Aerodynamic Pressure or Everyday Astronaut and hopefully you’ll find it wherever
you listen to music. Give it a listen, enjoy. Thanks everybody. That does it for me. I’m Tim Dodd, the everyday
astronaut bringing space down to Earth for everyday people. (soft rock music))

100 thoughts on “Abandoned Space Hardware: CANCELLED Part 2

  1. Are you going to speak about the sunk cost theory, you know when you determine that investing more money won't make your project happen anyway ?

  2. Great video and great work Tim, as usual ! Appreciate the fact that you use metric units during explanation instead of imperial units 😉

  3. By the way, your album “Maximum Aerodynamic Pressure” rocks! I especially like “Moon Dance”, am going to use it in my yoga classes. 😎🧘‍♀️🤷‍♂️

  4. Greetings humann; The Apollo lunar command module was attached to the service module until the returning LEM astronauts crawled back into the command module. The LEM was jetisonned before the burn to leave lunar orbit. What is known about that LEM after that (crash into lunar surface), as well as the service modules upon return to earth. Thank you; no other search on this subject as the question just arose.

  5. Maybe I missed it from a prior video. What happened to Falcon 2 through Falcon 8? Why did SpaceX go from 1 straight to 9?

  6. Caught up with Our Ludicrous Future and listened to your album a few times today, great stuff by the way, cant wait for your future "Lunar Orbit Rendezvous" (maybe?) album hehe. Just watched this and Joe's video on ULA Atlas etc. Big fan of you guys and also of Scott Manley, please try to get him on O.L.F a few times if possible! Either way, this is great work you fellas are doing 🙂

  7. Love the videos, Tim, keep it going!

    Silly question that I'm sure has been answered by you at length in a video… but if the Saturn V is the biggest baddest beast we've ever made, and still ranks right there with current heavy-launch vehicles in thrust and payload to orbit and so on… why isn't NASA just building an updated Saturn V? I only ever hear about the Saturn V in a positive light so, why don't we want to dust off those plans, update them, and get our Saturn VI on??

  8. Hi there Tim, recently subbed up, mostly for the KSP content but now I'm really enjoying all aspects of your spacey channel. This series is great! Very informative. Thank you for taking the time to complete this excellent presentation, fine work Sir! Please keep doing what ur doing.

  9. If you continue this series, you should include the space shuttle type program that would have launched from VAFB but cancelled after the Challenger incident

  10. There has to be a sci-fi movie set in the future where heroes steal a museum Saturn V to get away from Earth

  11. They need to pass legislation so that if a project is approved and funded that it stays funded! Regardless of the political situation and what party happens to be in power. We'd have people on Mars by now if it wasn't for successive governments constantly going back on their word.

  12. I saw the Saturn V at KSC for myself.
    Once you get into the building, the first thing you see are the MASSIVE F-1 engines.
    I stood there for an entire minute, jaw-dropped, looking at them.
    Then I went over for a snack right under a flight-hardware Lunar Module.
    Insanely beautiful.

  13. Big fan, I really enjoy your videos! Could you maybe tell us more about different rocket engines, also on the separate stages and how they work? Elon changed the engines on his rocket designs often, and i'd like to understand the benefits and limitations of each, and get behind the decision and thought process that influences the design.

  14. When I was in college, I took a creative writing class (naively thinking that I'd be learning how to write a novel) and one of the assignments was to write a poem. I picked the Saturn V as the subject of mine. I know that it's not the best poem, but I feel that it fits with your last choice in this part. Hope you enjoy.

    Saturn

    Roaring like a beast most feral
    Thundering like a coming storm’s herald

    Fire and brimstone spew from many a maw
    And all there is left to do is stand in awe

    An inferno consumes its earthly shackles
    As ice and smoke flow off its hackles

    It sheds the earthly bonds and mortal coil
    As is they are nothing more than mere foil

    The heavens tremble and yield a breach
    As speed builds and puts them in reach

    This once was true, but nevermore
    As lesser beasts blast this shore

    It lays on the ground
    Never making another sound

    Deep slumber the beast does take
    But there are those who hope it will awake

  15. I got a tour of the old SpaceX headquarters once where they had two new vehicle under construction to show off. The very first dragon capsule had very recently (that week?) begun construction and was just a three sided pyramid of a metal frame. Right next to it on the assembly line was what was originally going to be it's ride to orbit: the Falcon 5. Gwynne Shotwell who was conducting the tour told us this was actual flight hardware as SpaceX didn't build boiler plate versions of their ships. I don't think they could afford to at the time.

  16. Having seen a Saturn V take off and the static displays In Houston and Huntsville I understand your sentiment. However I fell it is a fitting testament to a bygone era of space travel and looking forward is the only logical choice. With all of the new technology in play today space is fun again. Ya I've got to get me a F-1 tee.

  17. I just toured the Kennedy space center and took a bus around all the launch pads. It was the coolest thing. Definitely would recommend going.

  18. The Apollo LEM engine was tested on Apollo 10. It separated from the CM and descended, without landing, before jettisoning the descent stage and firing the ascent engine.

  19. "Can you imagine being the only person, standing on the face of the moon?"

    That sounds like my idea of a perfect trip.

  20. Skylab B (flyable backup Skylab) is sitting in the Smithsonian. There was a proposal to refurb it and use it in conjunction with the Shuttle after original Skylab was lost

  21. Hopefully you'll cover "Blue Gemini" , MOL and Big-G (which was alternative to the Shuttle considered by Nixon) in future videos

  22. since the "Soviet Union" owned every thing plus they made all the rules in the USSR they could recklessly endanger their astronaut's and no one could complain. versus congress having to beg for money , until Kennedy.

  23. Tim, you are really hitting them out of the park! I love your videos and the way you present your material. I learn a lot from your videos about things I did not even know I wanted to know! You are not a bad musician either! 🎹🎧🎹

  24. My friends and I are building a model falcon 1 using a hybrid rocket. Maybe. Or we will design a small liquid fueled engine. Or just use a lame srb. Idk.

  25. Not that I'm a conspiracy theorist or anything but the Soviet lander looks an awful lot like the description of the object in the Kecksburg incident.

  26. I live about 40 minutes from KSC and have been there more times than I can count and every time I walk under or beside the Saturn V I'm still speechless.

  27. 12:12 fun fact, he wanted to send a greenhouse to Mars, and the person he wanted to buy his rocket from spat in him.

  28. Tim Dodd is a poet with a physics linguistic vocabulary that ordinary YouTube viewers can digest. His videos are pricelessly informative.

  29. The thing with Falcon 1 and black arrow is, these are not about the actual thing actually going to orbit. Its about learning curves and craftmanship. Basically any person who starts physics or aviation studies would theoretically be able to build a rocket. But when you actually do it, all these things happen, like screws and plugs going loose from vibration and components melting due to overheating and so forth. So you spend loads of money for a bunch of people to go from "why is nothing happening on the launchpad?" to "whoah have you seen that explosion?" to "oopsie, go for orbit anyways!". Once they know how to handle that small rocket, they can go on to bigger ones or better ones. Even after 20 years of mothballing you can get the guys out of retirement and have them build a functional vehicle should the need arise.

  30. Seeing the Saturn V at KSC was SOOOO worth it. They were working on a couple modules when I went to prepare for Apollo 50, but it was one of the best things I've seen.

  31. I love how he finished the video by saying “there’s lots more coming in this series” then proceeds to not make another video for it in 8 months and counting

  32. I actually went to the foods space center and you really don't really realize how big the Saturn v is until you realize one engine could carry 20 of you

  33. Tim, love your channel and narration. If I wasn't broke I'd happily fund your efforts as I grew-up watching all the NASA launches, et cetera during the 60's and early 70's and thereafter too. Love your ability to speak to some of the awesome engineering that made it all possible. Thanks!

  34. After watching some of your videos, it seems to me most rockets that failed were "hacked" together using parts from previous rockets. Including the flight systems.
    Would it be safe to assume, that most successful rockets had a somewhat blank slate, when they were designed and developed?

  35. n-1 lander to apollo lander comrade u suck the hammer and sickle shall win enemy for russia oh Russia oh ye hail russia for stallin = awesomeness

    apollo sucks n1 kicks butt we nuke America

    for russia o russia u is so awesome for stallin hood

    o yhe russiaaaaaaaaa!!!!!!!!!!!!

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