Energy Meter – Working Principle and Construction – Electronic Instrumentation and Measurement


Do subscribe to Ekeeda channel and press bell icon to get updates about latest Engineering, HSC and IIT-JEE Mains and Advanced videos.Hello Friends,In this video we will study about energy meters why they are used what are the different types of energy meters their applications their construction working advantages and disadvantages so your people study that what is energy meter and what are the various types of energy meters so let us start with a topic. So energy meters they are used for the measurement of energy. So energy we note that energy is measured by measuring the power over a period of time okay now the unit for car is what and over time we are measuring so what our meter energy meters are also known as what are meters. So if we write the formula for energy then energy is the integration of power with respect to time okay so the unit for power is what and for time we used our like for Bernard what is the amount of part consumed that will be the energy so we can say that energy meters or the unit for energy is what are and we can also say that energy meters are also known as what are meters so what are meters or energy meters they basically measures the amount of fire consumed by the electrical products so it basically measures the amount of electrical energy which is consumed by the products so if we see it’s applications that where the energy meters are used so energy meters can be used in homes in industrial applications where we want to find out that how much energy is being consumed by the home appliances and the industrial equipment so it has applications in you she is consumed by the appliances okay so that is the use of the energy meters now we know that here the energy is what it is the part consumed for a particular period of time so when we are measuring the power for heavy loads okay because for some period of time they are measuring so we already take it in the form of arts okay and for heavy loads when we are using these energy meters then we have to use some protection because been heavy low heavy current is passing through the energy meters they can’t be damaged whereas for low currents they can be directly connected with the instrument means with the appliance whose energy we want to measure you now we know that energy is the power consumed in a period of time so here we have taken that the unit for car is what we have seen here okay and if we say that one kilowatt is equals 2,000 baht okay so if we say that one kilowatt of energy of part is consumed in Bart then that will be equal to one unit of energy okay so one unit of energy is equal to 1 kilowatt of power consumed in butter so whenever we are measuring the energy consumed by the appliances in industries and homes and in organizations we measure the energy in the form of units okay now these energy meters they can be a single-phase energy meters or three-phase energy meter you and they are divided into these two types depending upon that for what application they are used single-phase means when they are used for the home appliances then single-phase energy meters are used and for the commercial or industrial applications the three-phase energy meters are used now these single-phase energy meters they are directly connected with the online you whereas the three-phase energy meters because they are used for measuring the heavy amount of energy and heavy currents are flowing in the industrial equipments so to protect the instrument from those heavy currents yet we have to use the current transformers there you so energy meters can be of two types single-phase energy meter and three-phase at our gym in town so the these energy meters because they are measuring the power consumed so they usually measures the instantaneous month and what we how we calculate the power bar is the product of the voltage and the current we calculate for by multiplying the voltage and the current that is V into I so this part which is calculated it is the instantaneous power okay so these energy meters they measure the instantaneous voltages and instantaneous current so we are getting the instantaneous part and this enters an instantaneous part is integrated over a period of time to get the value for the energy so all the energy leaders they work on the principle that they are going to measure the instantaneous voltages and the current they will measure the part and then this part will be integrated over a period of time to give the value for the energy now there are various types of energy meters energy meters they can be classified into different categories based on various factors so let’s see what are these factors on the basis of which there are various types of energy meters so the first factor on the basis of which the energy meters are classified is the type of display provided by the energy meter that whether the energy meter is giving us an analog output or the digital output so based on that we are having analog energy meters and digital energy meters you second is the type of meeting point that from where we are doing the measurement whether it is the primary measurement or it’s a secondary measurement means that at the same position we are measuring the energy or at some other location so type of metering point you based on applications also there are various energy meters like whether they are used for the home applications or for the industrial or commercial applications you also we have seen the type of energy meters based on or technical we use like better they are single-phase energy meters or they are three-phase energy meters that how they are connected with the line okay so from tecnica so there are various factors on the basis of which the energy meters are classified now here we will study the main types of energy meters first we will study the electro mechanical induction type of energy Needham this is the most common energy meter and it is widely used so let us start with the electro mechanical so this is the oldest type of the energy meter of water NIDA and it consists of a rotating aluminum disc which is rotating in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet so let’s see the construction of this induction type energy meter what are its main components and what is the function of these components you so the main part of this energy meter is an aluminum disk this aluminum disk is rotating between the magnetic field of two electro magnets there are two electromagnets in between them there is an aluminum disc this discus mounted on a spindle this disc is rotating in the magnetic field so due to the rotation of the magnetic field the speed of the rotation of this aluminum disc this speed is proportional to the hub if more part is applied to the instrument then more will be the speed of rotation okay and if lace part is there then less the speed of rotation will be there now we have calculated the part so now this part will be integrated over a period of time and then energy will be calculated you now let’s see it’s diagram so it will be clear to us that how this energy meter works you the diagram for the single phase induction type energy needle this is single phase type here the AC supplies of single phase okay now you can see that it consists of two electromagnets one is the shunt magnet and other is the series magnet in between these two magnets we are having the aluminum disk so this aluminum disk is rotating in the magnetic field this the speed of rotation of this disk is proportional to the part which is consumed by the appliance okay so let’s see it’s working that how it measures the part and then part will be used measure the energy so there are two magnets series and shunt so in series you can see that it is two coils are wounded over it and these coils is called the current coil okay and this coil is having very few number of terms whereas on the short department we are having the pressure coil and this pressure coil is having many number of turns as compared to the current cone so series is series magnet it carries a coil and it is called series magnet because it is connected in series with the line whereas the sharp magnet it also carries a coil but this coil is having many number of turns and it is called shunt magnet because it is connected in parallel to the line okay or we can say that it is connected across the supply so it is connected whereas the series magnet is connected in series with the line now other than these two magnets we are having a break magnet also break magnet is a permanent magnet which applies of force which is opposite to the rotation of the you so this great magnet it is going to apply a force which is opposite to the rotation of the aluminum disk so Bank no power is applied to the circuit the disk should be not be rotating so this brake magnet is going to bring the disk back to its normal position or the brake a balanced position okay so because due to vent current is flowing in these pressure coils and the current coil here the current is the load current current which is proportional to the load is flowing through the pressure coils so due to the current flowing in these magnets they will there will be a magnetic field and due to that magnetic field or EMF is generated and this EMF is going to rotate the aluminum disk because with this disc the pointer is being attached so motiva will be the speed of rotation of the disk that will be pointed or we can take the readings from the pointer which is moving over a scale and this scale is calibrated to give us the readings of the fun so if we see it’s walking then series magnetic produces flux this flux is proportional to the current okay whereas the shunt magnet it also produces flux and this flux is proportional to voltage okay now these two fluxes because bond flux is proportional to current one is proportional to voltage and for power we require both voltage and current now these two fluxes they are 90-degree in there will be a phase difference between this flux and that will be of 90 degree because here we are having the inductive flux due to inductive nature the voltage and current there will be a lacking relationship between them okay now due to the interaction of these two fluxes there will be an eddy current generated and this eddy current is going to generate a force which moves now this you so these two fluxes are generating the eddy currents due to the interaction of the two fluxes and these eddy currents are going to generate a force which moves the disk now to this aluminum disk because this disk is connected on a vertical spindle or shaft so as this disk moves and to the disk a vertical spindle or shaft is connected so that shaft is also going to move and to the shaft pointer is attached so pointer is going to move over the skin and this scale is going to provide us the readings of the part okay so we have seen that in this energy meters in their induction pipe energy meter due to the movement in the current is flowing the coil is also generating the flux and you do the voltage coil also a pressure coil also the flux is generated and these two fluxes they are in 90 degree phase angle with each other so phase difference can also be measured okay and the voltage and current values can also be measured because these fluxes are generating eddy currents eddy current produces force and due to force disc is rotating in the field okay so we have seen that the pointer due to the movement of the pointer over the scale this scale is calibrated in terms of the part we are directly getting the values of the part now this energy meter because this energy meter we want to find out the energy which is the power consumed over a period of time so part we have get here we will integrate this part for a period of time and then energy will be calculated so these energy meters the induction type they are very simple in construction and they are accurate okay but sometimes their accuracy is less due to the creeping action of the aluminum disk because due to the flipping and friction is also there so due to that if there are any external fields present so due to that also the readings will be affected so it is accurate but sometimes that accuracy is less due to creeping and the other external fields if we talk about its applications then it is commonly used in domestic and industrial applications so this is the first type of energy meter which is the electromechanical induction type of energy meter the next type of energy meters are the electronic energy meters tomatoes are very highly accurate precise and reliable as compared to the induction type of energy meters accurate the consumes less power and the instantaneously they start measuring the part when they are connected across the lines so this starts measuring instantaneously so these are the advantages of the electronic energy meters over the conventional that is induction type of energy meter now these electronic energy meters they can be of two types analog energy meters or the digital energy meter so the difference between the analog and digital energy meter is that analog energy meters they do not measure the part directly they convert the power into frequency and then frequency is measured so indirect measurement of parasitism whereas the digital they directly measures the also the analog electronic meters they are going to give us the analog readings means pointer is moving over the scale so the observer has to take the readings from the scale whereas the digital day gives us the datak the digital output so Derek reading will be given to us so a knock you whereas in digital meters you and after measuring the part this part will be integrated over a period of time to get the reading of the energy so these are the second type of energy meters that is electronic energy meters now third type of energy meters are the smart energy meters these energy meters they involve some intelligent system through that system we are measuring though means that how much part is to be consumed by the appliance and what is the maximum level minimum level all is set by that intelligent system so that is why they are the smart energy meters you so it involves intelligent meters which are reading processing and feedback in the data to door customers that dis much fat is being consumed your consumption level has increased you have to minimize it by this much value so all this is provided by the energy meters so here we can say that it measures energy remotely means that the site area or the location where the energy is measured that is being remotely located to the main site location okay so from a distance also and over a long distances the measurement can be done so it measures energy remotely you also it switches the supply to the customers and remotely controls the maximum electricity consumption so these are the intelligent system and which involves not only the retaking only the readings but also processing that data and giving feedback to the customers that it has exceeded its maximum consumption level so these are the third type of energy meters so yah we studied about the energy meters which are used for the measurement of energy we saw that energy is measured by measuring the power over a period of time so we studied the various factors on the basis of which the energy meters are classified name is 33 types of energy meters the first and the most important one was the electromechanical induction type of energy meter after that we studied the electronic energy meters and the smart energy meters so these energy meters measures the energy by measuring the part and integrating it over a period of time so I hope that this topic is now clear to you thank you

20 thoughts on “Energy Meter – Working Principle and Construction – Electronic Instrumentation and Measurement

  1. madam please i have a confusion at 5:11 of the video in the definition of one watt hour ,, and you have told us that it is the amount of one kilo watt of power consumed in one one hour. would you please clear my this point. thank you

  2. Hello Friends,

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  3. No explanation for why the things happening u just said that this will happen that will happen no clear concept about how the disc is rotating since fields are normal (perpendicular) to the surface and formation of eddy current will be there but how the force is actually working to rotate the disc u didnt explain anything
    So poor knowledge sorry to say but u wasted my time

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