Whats is Electronic Chart Display and Information System ECDIS

This chapter will give you a brief introduction to the evolution of electronic chart display systems it will help you understand what X is the present state as effective and some guesses about the future of activist presenting navigational chart information on radar displays and/or on special navigational displays is not a new idea in the seventies several manufacturers offered a system with possibilities for presenting limited navigational chart information superimposed on the radar display or on a separate display due to technical limitations and high prices even the most sophisticated of these early systems were only delivered in small numbers two ships one cassette one voyage you need not go to the chart room you can call for any chart you want nor control data Bridge was one of the early systems providing limited chart information on the radar display another system with this capability was the mitsubishi tonik preset route cursor own ship and its speed vector mountain symbol lighthouse impul coastline shallow area borderline range marker other ship and its speed vector the early integrated navigation systems which had the possibilities of displaying a limited amount of chart information used the Navy navigation satellite system dekha Laran see radar positioning astronavigation terrestrial navigation and or dead reckoning to position its own ship the more advanced of these earlier integrated navigation systems combine the position information from several sources for example NSS & Decker NSS and the ran NSS and dr etc for professional navigators who knew the system’s limitations and took these into account at all times these systems provided great assistance to navigation on many ships and certainly made the navigators job easier and more interesting the early systems like today’s active systems if used by untrained or unqualified personnel pose a threat to their own ship and crew as well as two other ships and the environment unfortunately the new systems have not been made easier to use than the earlier once the complexity of today’s system poses a threat in itself and far more attention and resources have to be put into the human-machine interface field in order to make the system’s more usable for the navigator electronic charts have been used in military applications for several decades however it wasn’t until november 1988 that the International hydrographic organization set up a working group to develop specifications for chart symbols and color definitions that could be evaluated by the hydrographic offices activist users and manufacturers during the 14th international hydrographic conference in 1992 and international standard for exchange of maritime digital electronic chart information was established this standard is known as s57 and consists of a data model a list of objects a description of attributes a description of the data exchange format DX 90 actis is an abbreviation for electronic chart display and information system I a computerized system with the ability to display all information provided on a paper chart together with information provided for many other sources such as GPS r / radar etc act this information may be divided into two main groups chart related information navigation related information standard requirements functions and features fractus are given in IMO resolution ah-1 719 adopted on the twenty-third of november 1995 although several manufacturers produce active systems and activist has been around for some time relatively few ships are equipped with such systems the number of ships equipped with a cactus is expected to increase rapidly in the near future as the availability of digital charts so far has been limited and the charts available have been relatively expensive this is contributed to relatively low numbers of active systems in the world merchant fleet so far another negative factor was that actors did not legally replace the paper chart before the summer of nineteen ninety nine the human-machine interface and user friendliness of the early active systems is not what the Mariner wants and is likely to accept today the technology for improvement is here detectives manufacturers have to invest more effort and money to make it more user-friendly and improve its operational safety operators who feel that they’re active system is not user friendly and safe to use should let the manufacturer know about their experiences with the system this is the only way its operators can put pressure on the manufacturers and contribute to better HMI this information may include geographical chart information lights boys leading lines of traffic lanes special areas etc hydrographic office information local chart information user notes manufacturers information chart work planned route bearing lines range rings etc own ship position and velocity vector ships head and rate of turn past track etc navigational warnings and alarms generated by activist fix accuracy position check from secondary positioning system ship handling options based on ships characteristics alphanumeric navigation information information from radar and other sensors remained us it should be the aim of the presentation design and presentation standards to provide as much diversity and flexibility as possible as long as the system remains simple and straightforward to use act is flexibility of presentation may include displaying or removing various types of chart and non chart information selecting standard chart display or detail display and simplified symbols or full symbols using curse interrogation for further details overlaying or removing radar video or radar target information overlaying or removing various other sensor information changing the scale orientation of the display selecting trumotion or relative motion changing the screen layout giving navigation and chart warnings graphical presentation of computer evaluation of grounding danger graphical presentation of collision danger Exodus has an important capability of detecting the need for warnings and alarms here are some examples of possible warnings planned route infringes the safety contour or enters a prohibited area displays over scale conversely there is more detailed information available that is displayed some examples of activist alarms the ship’s projected position infringes the safety contour or a hazard to navigation the ship’s course made good poses a hazard to navigation priority of information is important when using actus non h/o information should not obscure a chart information and information ahead of the ship along the planned route should have priority over information a stern of the ship navigators hope and believe that tomorrow’s activist will be more user friendly than the system today a clear distinction between the need to have and the rather nice to have functions and features must be maintained the manufacturers should only offer additional options if they are clearly useful and can be accommodated without confusing the operator tomorrow’s activist manufacturers should consult specialists in the following fields Mariners with relevant experience in the use of activist the Mariners can tell the system design people what is need to have and what is nice to have human factor specialists the human factor specialists have accumulated vast knowledge on presenting information and are experienced in testing how humans react to give information

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